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Benign Positional Vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

  • Benign positional vertigo is a type of vertigo that is precipitated by a particular position change in the head.
  • Benign positional vertigo is the most common cause of vertigo

  • Attacks are triggered by movements or position changes in the head. There are no symptoms while sitting or standing. Vertigo commonly occurs when the patient rolls over too quickly in bed.
  • The duration of vertigo lasts less than 1 minute.
  • Vertigo is usually accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

  • In most cases, the vertigo results from canalithiasis, the debris that floats within the semicircular canal (the portion of the inner ear that controls balance). The movement of debris by changes in certain head positions that change the semicircular canal causes the vertigo.
  • Some cases of benign positional vertigo occur after head trauma, viral infections and ear infections.

  • Patient history and physical examinations are extremely important. Vestibular and auditory function tests are needed. A simple positional test helps to confirm a diagnosis.

  • Repositioning maneuver-this maneuver is simple, standard treatment for BPPV that moves the debris out of the semicircular canal.
  • Symptomatic treatment with drugs, such as antihistamines, anticholinergics and sedatives.

  • The course is variable. The symptoms spontaneously subside in a few weeks in most patients, but recurrence is common. 


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